SARDINIA

Sardinia is a place where you can still have an idyllic vacation and discover wonderful places that lie off the beaten track. The island, which is elongated in shape, extends from north to south. The vegetation of Sardinia’s northern and southern regions varies quite a bit as do the island’s cultural traditions, and Sardinians have adapted to these differences in their natural environment. The best known area in Sardinia is Costa Smeralda with its unique small sandy beaches nestled among many different types of cliffs that border the coast’s numerous bays. Portobello, a cluster of lovely villas containing rental apartments, is typical of the accommodations available in the north of sardinia. Located on Sardinia’s east coast a half hour south of Olbia, San Teodoro has reinvented itself. Once a simple fishing village, it is now a popular resort town. This is mainly attributable to the nearby beaches, particularly La Cinta with its superlative three kilometer-long stretch of white sand. Not far to the south on the SS125 you come upon Nuoro, the capital city of the eponymous province that extends across the center of Sardinia from the east to the west coasts. This is the region people head directly to when they’re interested in discovering Sardinia at its most genuine. Perdasdefogu is another place where visitors can discover the real Sardinia. Surrounded by ancient holm-oak trees, this village is nestled in the Sardinian mountains between the historic Oligastra and Salto de Quirra regions. The island’s topography changes considerably as you travel south. Muravera is set in a hilly landscape and is bordered by large lagoons where pink flamingos and many other avian species can often be seen. Torresalinas, 7 km away, consists of a group of sea-front villas located on a stretch of Sardinia’s southern coast that lies off the beaten path. In contrast to Torresalinas, Costa Rei, which is located further to the south, has become a magnet for tourism but has lost none of its charm. Located about 50 km south of the island’s capital city of Cagliari, Costa Rei (“King’s coast”) offers visitors crystal clear waters that are almost surrealistically aquamarine in color, and long white sandy beaches. Villagio Rocca Sant' Elmo, which is nestled in an unspoiled natural area at the tip of Costa Rei, was built in the 1990s. Here, Vito Sonzogni’s ingenious and prize winning architecture enables the buildings to blend in seamlessly with their natural surroundings. Villasimius is a picturesque former fishing village. Geremeas is also every vacationer’s dream of the perfect place to be. A mere 30 km to the east of the hubbub of Sardinia’s capital city of Caligari, this resort is located on a section of coastline that is not visible from the coastal road and offers the loveliest long white sandy beaches imaginable.Is Molas is set in an exquisite landscape consisting of intensely green maquis, pine forests and lush flowering vegetation including palms and cacti. The view of the sea, the Pula flatland and the mountains is magnificent.

Sardinian Beaches - Beaches 

Geremeas

For those of you who enjoy a well-groomed living environment combined with ocean proximity, Geremeas is spot on. These are two exquisite and extensive beaches and is just half an hour’s drive from Cagliari.

Villasimius

Some of Sardinia's most sensational beaches are to be found in the vicinity of the traditional coastal village of Villasimius. Fantastic views over the coastline can be seen from the light tower.

Beach Porto Guinco

Beach

Chia:

Baia Chia resembles the dreamy beaches of the Caribbean. Towering white sand dunes and crystal clear waters make this coastal stretch one of Sardinia’s highlights

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Pula:

One of the most magical as well as diversified stretches of coastline in Sardinia is to be found in Pula. Balmy beaches and coves, Roman excavations and blindingly white sand dunes endow the area with its richness.

Santa Margherita di Pula

Cagliari Poetto

Poetto Cagliaris Beaches:

Only a few kilometres away from Sardinia’s capital are endless beaches to be found, where you can relax, stroll around or just sunbathe. A place where the stresses and strains of city life are easily forgotten.

San Teodoro: 

The shooting star of Sardinia’s beach resorts! The one time fishing village of San Teodoro now lures sun worshippers, active holiday-makers and night lovers from all around the world to its snow-white beaches.

Cala di Luna

Costa Smeralda

Smeralda Coast ( Costa Smeralda ):

he “Emerald Coast” is not only widely celebrated as a playground for the rich and famous, but also for its unrivalled beaches and secluded coves.

 

Portobello:

Portobello is situated on Sardinia’s wildly romantic northern Coast. With a beautiful beach right outside the front door, as well as many others in the adjacent vicinity, this is an ocean swimmer’s delight.

Costa Paradiso

Beach at Costa Rei

Costa Rei's Beaches

The „Coast of Kings“ in south-east Sardinia is famed for its translucent, turquoise waters and never-ending, white sandy beaches

Sant'Elmo 

Sant Elmo  is located in the southerly part of Costa Rei. Here you will discover picturesque coves of sand and rock as well as numerous secret and deserted spots, even in high season. The turquoise blue waters and bizarre rock formations are an eyecatcher.

Wide beach

Ochre coloured beach

Torresalinas:

Torresalinas, con le relative vaste spiagge colorate ocracee, fornisce più di abbastanza respiro per resto e rilassamento, anche nell'alta stagione. Ideale per i bambini con le relative acque poco profonde

Thought was populated since prehistory (the first human settlements date back to 6.000 - 5.000 B.C.), Sardinia never elaborated a unitary association form. The trace of the settlement is therefore extremelyfragmentary, as lots of little villages throughout the island witness.Villages, which are expression of a civil-social order, organized in communities and tribal groups of modest entity.The age of the nuragic civilization was a period of independence, but also of relative isolation from the big cultural movements in the Mediterranean area. The Nuraghe with its peculiar architectural structure is the most representative sign of that past. A typical character of Sardinian archaeology is the disposition of the monuments and architectural works, spread all over the countryside, making up a harmonious whole with the natural environment.
The Nuraghi as well as other evidences of the past, such as Domus de Janas, holy wells and temples, the giants tombs, the big stones fixed in the ground (betili or menhir of the megalithic architecture) make of Sardinia a kind of "open-air museum".
These signs are very frequent. On the whole island there are, in fact, about 7.OOO Nuraghi and hundreds of archaeological monuments.
Prehistory  Sardinia is one of the most ancient lands in Europe, visited way back the Palaeolithic period though inhabited permanently by man only much later, in the Neolithic age, around 6000 B.C. The first men to settle in Gallura and Northern Sardinia probably came from the Italian mainland and, in particular, from Etruria. Those who populated the central region of the island around the salt lakes of Cabras an S. Giusta, arrived it seems from the Iberian Peninsula by way of the Balearic Islands. Those who founded their settlements around the gulf of Cagliari were never was one single peopling but really several peoples. As time passed, the Sardinian peoples became united in language and customs yet remained divided politically into various smaller tribal states. Sometimes they banded together, while at others they were at war with one another. Tribes lived in villages made up of round thatched stone huts, similar to the present day pinnate of shepherds. From about 1500 B.C. onwards the villages were built at the foot of a mighty truncated cone fortress (often reinforced and enlarged with embattled towers) called nuraghe. The boundaries of tribal territories were guarded by smaller lookout nuraghi erected on strategic hills commanding a view of the enemy. Today some 7000 nuraghi dot the Sardinian landscape.
Ancient history Around 1000 B.C. the Phoenicians began to land on the shores of Sardinia with increasing frequency. Setting sail from Lebanon, on their trade routes as far as field as Britain they needed safe anchorages for the night or to weather a storm.With the local chieftain's consent the more common ports of call were those later named as: Caralis, Nora, Bithia, Sulcis, Tharros, Bosa, Torres and Olbia. They soon became important markets and after a time real towns inhabited by Phoenician families who traded on the open sea and with the Nuragic Sardinians inland. In 509 B.C., in view of the Phoenician expansion inland becoming ever more menacing and penetrating, the native Sardinians attacked the coastal cities held by the enemy who, in order to defend themselves, called upon Carthage for help. The Carthaginians, after a number of military campaigns, overcame the Sardinians and conquered the most mountainous region, later referred to as Barbarian or Barbagia. F or 271 years, the splendid Carthaginian or Punic civilization flourished alongside the fascinating local Nuragic culture. In 238 B.C. the Carthaginians, defeated by the Romans in the first Punic War, surrendered Sardinia which became a province of Rome. The Romans enlarged and embellished the coastal cities and with their armies even penetrated the Barbagia region, thereby bringing down the Nuragic civilization. The Roman domination in Sardinia lasted 694 long years and was often opposed by the Sardinians fro, the mountains who, netherless, adopted the Latin language and civilization.
Medieval History In 456 A.D., when the Roman Empire was sinking fast, the Vandals of Africa, on their return from a raid Latium on the mainland, occupied caralis along with the other coastal cities of Sardinia. In 534 the Vandals were defeated at Tricamari - a place some 30 km from Carthage - by the troops of the Eastern Emperor Justin Ian and Sardinia thus became Byzantine. The island was divided into districts called merèie, governed by a judge residing in Caralis (Cagliari) and garrisoned by an army stationed in Forum Traiani (nowadays Fordongeanus) under the command of a dux. Along with the Byzantines and the Eastern monastivism of the followers of St. Basil, Christianity spread throughout the island, except in the Barbagia regions. Here, towards the end of the sixth century, a short-lived independent domain re-established itself, with Sardinian-heathen lay and religious traditions, one of its kings being Ospitone. From 640 to 732 the Arabs occupied North Africa, Spain and part of France. In 827 they began their occupation of Sicily. Sardinia remained isolated and was forced to defend herself; thus, the judge provincial assumed overall command with civil and military powers. The continual raids and attacks by the Islamised Berbers on the Sardinian shores began in 710 and grew ever more ruinous with time. Their inhabitants abandoned one by the coastal towns and cities. The judge provincial, in order to afford a better defence of the island, assigned his civil and military powers to his four lieutenants in the merrier of Cagliari, Torres or Logudoro, Arborea and Gallura. Around 900, the lieutenants gained their independence, in turn becoming judices (in Sardinian judikes means king) of their own logo or state. Each one of these four Sardinian states called judicative constituted a sovereign kingdom, not patrimonial but independent since it was not the property of the monarch. But they were at the same time democratic since all the most important issues of national interest were not for the king (or giudice) himself to decide but were a matter for the representatives of the people gathered in assembly called corona de logu. Each kingdom manned its own fortified boundaries to protect its own political and trading affairs, its own parliament, own laws (cartas de logu), own national languages, own chancelleries, own state emblems and symbols, etc. The kingdom or "giudicato" of Cagliari was politically pro-Genoese. It was brought to an end in 1258 when its capital, S. Igia, was stormed and destroyed by an alliance of Sardinian-Pisan forces. The territory then became a colony of Pisa. The kingdom of Torres, too, was pro-Genoese a came to an end in 1259, on the death of the "giudicessa" Adel Asia. The territory was divided up between the Dorian family of Genoa and the Bas-Serra family of Arborea, while the city of Sassari became an autonomous city-republic. The kingdom of Gallura ended in the year 1288, when the last "giudice" Nino Visconti a friend of Dante's, was driven out by the Pisan who occupied the territory. The kingdom of Arborea was almost always under the political and cultural influence of the powerful marine republic of Pisa. It lasted some 520 years, with Oristano as its capital. In 1297, Pope Boniface VIII in order to settle diplomatically ghee War of the Vespers, which broke out in 1282 between the Angevins and Aragon's over the possession of Sicily, established mote propriety a hypothetical "regnum Sarduniae et Corsicae". The Pope enfeoffed it to the Catalan Jaume II the Just, king of the Crown of Aragon (a confederation made up of the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, plus the peasants of Catalonia), promising him support should he wish to conquer Pisan Sardinia in exchange for Sicily. In 1323 Jaume II of Aragon formed an alliance with the kings of Arborea and, following a military campaign which lasted a year or so, occupied the Pisa territories of Cagliari and Gallura along with the city of Sassari, naming them "kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica". In 1353, for reasons of state survival, war broke out between the kingdom of Arborea and the kingdom of "Sardinia and Corsica", part of the Crown of Aragon. In 1354 the Aragon's seized Alghero and reshaped it into an entirely Catalan city, which still today displays its Iberian origins. In 1353 Pere IV of Aragon, called "the Cerimonious", granted legislative autonomy (a parliament) to the kingdom of "Sardinia and Corsica" which was followed in due course by self-government (Viceroy) and judicial independence (Royal Hearing). From 1365 to 1409 the kings or "giudici" of Arborea Mariano IV, Ugone III, Mariano V (assisted by his mother Eleonora, the famous giudicessa regent) and Guglielmo III (French grandson of Eleonora) succeeded in occupying very nearly all Sardinia except Castle of Cagliari (today Cagliari and Alghero). In 1409 Marti the younger, king of Sicily ad heir to Aragon, defeated the judicable Sardinians at Sanluri and conquered once and for all the entire land. Shortly afterwards he died in Cagliari of malaria, without issue, and consequently the Crown of Aragon passed into the hands of the Castilians Trastàmara - and in particular Ferran I of Antequera and his descendants --with the Coòpromise of Caspe in 1412. 
Modern History In 1479, as a result of the personal union of Ferran II of Aragon and Isabel of Castile (the so-called "Catholic king and queen"), married ten years earlier, was born the Crown of Spain. Even the "kingdom of Sardinia" (which in the new title was separated from Corsica since that island never was conquered) became Spanish; with the state symbol that of the Four Moors. Following the failure of the military ventures against the Mulsumen of Tunis (1535) and Algiers (1541) Carlos V of Spain, in order to defend his Mediterranean territories from the pirate raids by the Africa Berbers, fortified the Sardinian shores with a system of coastal lookout towers. The kingdom of Sardinia remained Iberian for approximately four hundred years, from 1323 to 1720, assimilating a number of the Spanish traditions, customs, linguistic expressions and lifestyles, nowadays vividly portrayed in the folklore parades of S. Efisio in Cagliari (May 1st)by the Cavalcade on Sassari (last but one Sunday in May) and by the Redeemer in Nuoro (August 28th). In 1708, as a consequence of the Spanish War of Succession, the rule of the kingdom of Sardinia passed into the hands of the Austrians who landed on the island. In 1717 cardinal Alberoni, minister of Felipe V of Spain, reoccupied Sardinia. In 1718, with the Treaty of London, the kingdom of Sardinia was handed over to the Dukes of Savoy, princes of Piedmont, who rendered it perfect from imperfect attributing it the summa potestas that is the authority to stipulate international treaties. The kingdom was then italianised. In 1799, as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars in Italy, the Dukes of Savoy left Turin and took refuge in Cagliari for some fifteen years. In 1847 the Sardinians spontaneously renounced their state autonomy ad formed a "fusion" with Piedmont in order to have a single parliament, a single magistracy and a single government in Turin. In 1848 the Wars of Independence broke out for the Unification of Italy and were led by the kings of Sardinia for thirteen years. I n 1861 the kingdom of Sardinia was transformed into the Italian state founded.
Contemporary Age In 1946 by popular referendum Italy became a Republic. Sardinia - administered since 1948 by special Statute - is today one of the twenty Italian regions, with 1,700,000 inhabitants spread out over the provinces of Cagliari, Sassari, Oristano and Nuoro, retracing more or less the territories of the four ancient and glorious judicable states.

Gastronomia Sarda

The Sardinian Cuisine: is a celebration of natural products from the land and surrounding sea. It unites dishes from the ancient pastoral and farming traditions with those based on fish and seafood, and the flavours of the natural ingredients are exalted by the unmistakable aromas of the island’s Mediterranean essences. Even today Sardinian cuisine is strictly linked to the seasons and its secret lies in the quality of the ingredients and the simplicity of its dishes. It offers visitors a triumph of unique flavours, with each area boasting a vast selection of local specialities, all prepared according to ancient traditions and customs. The fine products provided by both the land and sea mean that the choice of delicious main courses is particularly rich. Among the many celebrated meat dishes, the most well-known is unquestionably “porceddu”, suckling pig cooked on a spit or “a carraxiu”, that is to say cooked in a hole dug in the ground, using the aromatic wood of the Mediterranean scrub land. However, there are numerous other mouth-watering dishes, such as rabbit “a succhittu”, served in a sauce made from the rabbit’s liver, wine, capers and tomatoes; wild boar in Cannonau wine; stewed thrushes and quail wrapped in myrtle leaves.
The choice of fish dishes is endless. Lobster is prepared with citrus fruit in Alghero, with tomatoes in Bosa, grilled in Sant’Antioco and with white wine in Santa Teresa di Gallura. Whilst in Cagliari, at Poetto beach visitors can sample sea urchin eggs spread on toasted bread, as well as “burrida”, dogfish with walnuts and vinegar. In and around Oristano the traditional dish is “merca”, mullet steeped in salt water with herbs. While bottarga (salted or dried mullet or tuna eggs) is a favourite all along the south west coast of the island and is considered Sardinia’s caviar. 
Sardinia also excels in some products which are becoming well-known and appreciated even outside the island’s boundaries. Among the most celebrated exports are the wines (cannonau from the Campidano region, Vermentino from Gallura), the cheeses (pecorino romano, fiore sardo) and extra virgin olive oil. However, Sardinian cuisine is also strictly linked to the production of wheat (imported by the Romans, who called the island the granary of Rome) and flour, traditions which are revealed in the rich selection of local bread, pasta and desserts. In fact, the different types of dried pasta we see today almost certainly originated from the traditional Sardinian pasta, which was left to dry in the open air and in the sun. The best examples of these are: “fregula”, which in Cagliari is served with clams and is a bran pasta prepared in small balls; “culurgiones”, ravioli with a variety of fillings (ricotta, saffron, mint, meat and prawns); “malloreddus”, typically served with a sausage and tomato sauce.

However, it is perhaps the production and elaboration of bread which best illustrates the quality of Sardinian flour and the island’s age-old tradition. Each region boasts its own speciality bread, made with special techniques and according to ancient recipes. Sanluri is famous for “civraxiu”, Ozieri for “spianata”, Ogliastra for “pistoccu”. 
Nevertheless, a special mention must be dedicated to “pane carasau”, wafer-thin sheets of toasted bread also known as “carta da musica” (music paper). This bread is typical of the Barbagia region and was a staple part of the shepherds’ diet, together with “pane frattau”, a sort of pie made from “pane carasau” baked with tomato sauce, pecorino cheese and boiled eggs.
Finally the desserts. “Sebadas” are round, sweet ravioli, filled with cheese, which are fried and then cover in honey. The speciality biscuits of Ozieri are the “sospiri”, while Tonara is famous for Sardinian nougat. The Campidano region offers delicious “gueffus” and “candelau”, the Barbagia has its “piricchittus” and “pabassinas”, while throughout the island visitors can taste numerous biscuits made from almonds and sweet cheeses. 

maialini arrosto

Sardinian Wine

In the suggestive Italian island, keeper of millenary traditions and cultures, wine has always represented an important resource, an ancient history which is capable of surprising even today

 Sardinia certainly is one of the most charming places of Italy, not only for the natural wonders found in this island, but also for its very ancient and rich traditions; an indissoluble heritage from culture, from places and from people who live here. Rich traditions and cultures which are also found in the ancient heritage of cooking, made of the many traditions which are found in the many areas and places of Sardinia, including wine, which in this land represents an important element of identity and history. From white wines to reds, an enological path also passing in the other styles and, among them, authentic rarities, extraordinary representatives of the island's wine making, such as Malvasia di Bosa and Vernaccia di Oristano. Two wonderful examples of wines with an extraordinary ancient taste, which give their best with very long times of aging. Sardinia has worth representatives in other wines as well - or better to say - in other grapes too. Vermentino is the most renowned white berried grape of the island and from which are being produced - in the whole territory of the region - excellent wines. Cannonau is still the most famous red berried grape of the island, even though since many years other red grapes are getting more and more famous thanks to the excellent results they produced in wine making: Carignan and Bovale. The richness of grapes in Sardinia goes beyond the ones already mentioned and which represent the most famous ones outside the region. In fact, Sardinia has a pretty interesting heritage of autochthonous grapes and, despite many of them have been introduced by Spaniards, after centuries of adaptation in the territory, today are being considered among the typical grapes of the region. Of course, here are also found the so called international grapes which are usually added to local varieties, as well as typical grapes from other Italian regions, such as Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Montepulciano and Barbera. Sardinia

 According to archaeological studies and researches, vine and wine are present in Sardinia since about 5,000 years. In fact, are dated back to this era the first findings of amphoras and cups in the area occupied by Nuraghi, the ancient people who lived in the island. Despite the age of these archaeological findings, it is believed vine was introduced in Sardinia by Phoenicians, during the period in which they occupied the island. In fact, it is believed the introduction of the vitis vinifera occurred in the seventeenth century b.C., in particular in the colonies of Tharros, Othoca, Cornus, Bithia, Karalis and Noca, all being situated in the western coast. Another important archaeological discovery - dated back to the fourth century b.C., in Roman times - witnesses the historical importance of the wine in the island. In 1984, near the Nuraghe Arrubiu di Orrioli - in the province of Nuoro - has been found a “wine making laboratory” with vessels and tanks for the fermentation and aging of wine. In the course of the diggings were also found some grape pips belonging to unidentifiable varieties.

 Because of the strategic geographical position of the island in the Mediterranean, Sardinia has been - in the course of the centuries - subject to conquests by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Arabs, Aragonese, Genovese, Pisans and - finally - by Sabaudi. Because of the influence of the people who dominated the island, viticulture and wine making has been strongly affected by the traditions and cultures of the many people, while living alternates periods of decay and of truly splendor. Among the people who mainly contributed to the development of enology in the island, are remembered the ones coming from the Aegean sea and from the Iberian peninsula. In fact, these people introduced new and fundamental viticultural and enological techniques, as well as the introduction of new grape varieties, still today found in Sardinia where they play an important role. Many of the famous grapes of Sardinia - such as Cannonau and Carignan - have been introduced by Spaniards, however the quantity of autochthonous grapes is pretty interesting and capable of making very good wines.

 A fundamental event for the viticulture of Sardinia - as well as for its agriculture - was represented by the promulgation of Carta De Logu. It was in 1392 Eleonora di Arborea - by continuing the job done by her father Mariano IV - promulgated this important document which regulated the viticulture and agriculture until 1827. Carta De Logu had in its goals, the purpose of increasing, safeguarding and incentivizing the cultivation of the vine and the production of wine. Moreover, there were also emanated heavy fines and corporal penalties to anyone not obeying to Carta De Logu's laws, which also provided the cut of the hand to anyone who fired vineyards or furtively uprooted vineyards. To the ones who did not plant vineyards in their lands, they were confiscated and given to others capable of working them. At the end of feudal times, rural property was abolished and many lands were therefore destined to pastures, then, in 1736 - thanks to marquis of Rivarolo - Carta De Logu was reintroduced again, therefore contributing to the development of viticulture in Sardinia.

 It was in this period wines of Sardinia began to become popular outside the borders of the region, in particular Cannonau produced in the areas near Nuoro, Vermentino di Gallura, Vernaccia di Oristano, Malvasia di Bosa, Monica passito (sweet), Girò, Moscato and Nasco. The development of wine making in Sardinia - here as it was everywhere else - was stopped with the arrive of phylloxera: only the vineyards planted in sandy soils could be saved. It was just in the beginning of the 1950's viticulture in Sardinia could resume its development thanks to the establishment of countless cooperative wineries. In this period the production was mainly attracted by quantity instead of quality, in particular for colored and concentrated red wines, with high alcohol volume, frequently used for strengthening other wines. With the introduction of quality production - which requires low yields in vineyards - many of cooperative and private wineries of Sardinia ended their business. This event - here as well as in other Italian regions - has allowed wines of Sardinia to reach the current remarkable quality levels, including the historical and typical wines of the island produced with autochthonous grapes.

Classification of Sardinia:  Wines of Sardinia are classified according to the quality system in force in Italy. In Sardinia are currently defined 19 DOC areas (Denominazione d'Origine Controllata, Denomination of Controlled Origin) and one DOCG (Denominazione d'Origine Controllata e Garantita, Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin), recognized to Vermentino di Gallura. The production of Sardinia is pretty vast and interesting: besides white and red wines, in the island are also produced excellent sweet wines as well as a wine with an ancient and complex taste: Vernaccia di Oristano, which would certainly deserve a better attention. The 19 DOC ares of Sardinia are: Alghero, Arborea, Campidano di Terralba, Cannonau di Sardegna, Carignano del Sulcis, Girò di Cagliari, Malvasia di Bosa, Malvasia di Cagliari, Mandrolisai, Monica di Cagliari, Monica di Sardegna, Moscato di Cagliari, Moscato di Sardegna, Moscato di Sorso-Sennori, Nasco di Cagliari, Nuragus di Cagliari, Semidano di Sardegna, Vermentino di Sardegna and Vernaccia di Oristano. In Sardinia - just like in other regions of Italy - the production of IGT wines (Indicazione Geografica Tipica, Typical Geographical Indication), is very rich and interesting, in which autochthonous grapes are frequently used with the so called international varieties.

Production Areas: In Sardinia the vine is cultivated in the whole territory of the region and many DOC wines are being produced in the entire territory of the island. Sardinia has a pretty rich heritage of autochthonous grapes and the ones introduced in the past centuries by the people who controlled its dominion, are now considered as local grapes. In the island is also recorded a presence of international grapes generally used in the production of wines and added to the local varieties. Despite in the whole region are being produced different wine styles, in Sardinia is found a sort of territorial division in the preference of production for specific styles. Whereas in the central and northern parts there is a higher production of white wines, the production of red wines is mainly concentrated in the southern part of the island. The main white berried grapes of Sardinia are: Malvasia Bianca, Malvasia di Sardegna, Nasco, Nuragus, Semidano, Torbato, Vermentino and Vernaccia di Oristano. As for red grapes, here are mentioned the main ones: Bovale, Caddiu, Cagnulari, Cannonau, Carignano, Girò, Monica and Nieddera. 

Vermentino di Gallura: The white berried grape with which are produced the most famous wines of Sardinia certainly is Vermentino. Despite this grape makes very good wines in the whole territory of the island, Gallura - the territory found in the northern part of the region - is the most classic and representative area. Vermentino di Gallura - the only DOCG wine of Sardinia - is extremely interesting, in particular the superior style, which, according to the disciplinary, it must have at least 13,5% of alcohol by volume. The main characteristic of this wine, of average structure, is represented by its evident aromas and flavors of almond. According to historical facts, Vermentino arrived in Gallura after 1850, probably coming from France after having passed Corse, the island where it is still cultivated. In Gallura Vermentino is the most cultivated grape and represents about 80% of total production, whereas the rest is represented by Muscat Blanc, Bovale, Caricagiola and Nebbiolo, the renowned grape from Langhe, Piedmont, here used for the production of interesting IGT wines.

Cannonau di Sardegna:   The most famous red berried grape of Sardinia - as well as the most cultivated one in the region - is Cannonau. Despite historians agree on the fact Cannonau was introduced in Sardinia during the dominion of Spaniards, it is not clear what is the original variety to which it belongs to. In fact, it is believed Cannonau is pretty similar to Canonazo - common in the area of Seville - as well as to Granaxo of Aragon and, finally - being the most common hypothesis - similar to Grenache Noir. Cannonau is cultivated in the whole region, however the most typical area is in the province of Nuoro, where are found three of the four Cannonau di Sardegna sub areas: Oliena, Nepente di Oliena and Jerzu. The fourth sub area - Capo Ferrato - is located in the southern part of the island in the province of Cagliari. Cannonau makes wines - in particular the ones of the Oliena area - with high alcohol volumes and robust structures, however the introduction of modern technologies allows today the production of excellent and very balanced Cannonau wines. Because of its low acidity, Cannonau is also vinified together with other grapes, usually autochthonous, in order to improve the gustatory balance. 

Vernaccia di Oristano:  Vernaccia di Oristano is one of the most suggestive wines of Sardinia and which would certainly deserve a better attention and consideration by consumers. Vernaccia di Oristano is also one of the most ancient wines of Sardinia - the first historical information are dated back to the 1300's - and it is also the first wine of the region to which was recognized the DOC status, in 1972. The wine is produced with the homonymous white grape, which is probably autochthonous of Sardinia. Despite Vernaccia di Oristano is legitimately considered a white wine, its production is pretty different from the wine making techniques used for these wines. Vinification and aging are still done according to ancient traditional methods, a process which frequently makes Vernaccia di Oristano to be considered similar to Spanish Jerez (Sherry), indeed it has its own and precise identity. The aging of Vernaccia di Oristano is done in partially filled chestnut cask, in which develop a colony of yeast (flor) which will give the wine - after tens of years - complex and unique organoleptic qualities. Time represents the main secret for this wine, as it improves as years passes by and with proper aging it can express extraordinary aromas of almond, hazelnut and its typical rancho aroma. 

Other Areas:  Besides the grapes and wines already mentioned, there must also be cited other typical varieties of Sardinia and from which are being produced interesting wines. One of the most interesting is the famous Malvasia di Bosa, produced in limited quantities, with a sweet taste and that with time improves by increasing its complexity and charm. As for sweet wines, there should be mentioned Moscato di Cagliari, Moscato di Sardegna and Moscato di Sorso-Sennori. Among white berried grapes should be mentioned Nuragus which, after having been the main grape of the island in terms of quantity, today - thanks to the modern wine making techniques - it is capable of producing good quality wines, different from the ones of the past, considered “rustic” and modest. For the Alghero area are mentioned the wines produced with Torbato grape - of Spanish origin - both whites and sparkling. Among red berried grapes, are mentioned the excellent results obtained in the last years with Carignan grape: elegant full bodied wines which reached the top of Sardinia's enology. Other interesting red grapes of Sardinia used for the production of wines include Monica, Cagnulari, Nieddera and Bovale, frequently used together with Cannonau and Carignan.

List of city in Sardinia

Sardegna

Cagliari

Nuoro

Oristano

Sassari

Arbus
Armungia
Assemini
Ballao
Barrali
Barumini
Buggerru
Burcei
Cagliari
Calasetta
Capoterra
Carbonia
Carloforte
Castiadas
Collinas
Decimomannu
Decimoputzu
Dolianova
Domus de Maria
Domusnovas
Donorì
Elmas
Fluminimaggiore
Furtei
Genuri 
Gesico
Gesturi
Giba
Goni
Gonnesa
 Gonnosfanadiga
Guamaggiore
Guasila
Guspini
Iglesias
Las Plassas
Lunamatrona
Masainas
Mandas
Maracalagonis
Monastir
Monserrato
Muravera
Musei
Narcao
Nuraminis
Nuxis
Ortacesus
Pabillonis
Pauli Arbarei
Perdaxius
Pimentel
Piscinas
Portoscuso
Pula
Quartu Sant'Elena
Quartucciu
Samassi
Samatzai
San Basilio
San Gavino Monreale
San Giovanni Suergiu
San Nicolò Gerrei
San Sperate
San Vito
Sanluri
Sant'Andrea Frius
Sant'Anna Arresi
Sant'Antioco
Santadi
Sardara
Sarroch
Segariu
Selargius
Selegas
Senorbì
Serdiana
Serramanna
Serrenti
Sestu
Settimo San Pietro
Setzu
Siddi
Siliqua
Silius
Sinnai
Siurgus Donigala
Soleminis
Suelli
Teulada
Tuili
Turri
Tratalias
Ussana
Ussaramanna
Uta
Vallermosa
Villa San Pietro
Villacidro
Villamar
Villamassargia
Villanovaforru
Villanovafranca
Villaperuccio
Villaputzu
Villasalto
Villasimius
Villasor
Villaspeciosa
Aritzo
Arzana
Atzara
Austis
Bari Sardo
Baunei
Belvi
Birori
Bitti
Bolotana
Borore
Bortigali
Bosa
Budoni
Cardedu
Desulo
Dorgali
Dualchi
Elini
Escalaplano
Escolca
Esterzili
Flussio
Fonni
Gadoni
Gairo
Galtelli
Gavoi
Genoni
Gergei
Girasole
Ilbono
Irgoli
Isili
Jerzu
Laconi
Lanusei 
Lei
Loceri
Loculi
Lodè
Lodine
Lotzorai
Lula
Macomer
Magomadas
Mamoiada
Meana Sardo
Modolo
Montresta
Noragugume
Nuoro
Nuragus 
Nurallao
Nurri
Oliena
Ollolai
Olzai
Onani
Onifai
Oniferi
Orani
Orgosolo
rosei
Orotelli
Orroli
Ortueri
Orune
sidda
Osini
Ottana
Ovodda
Perdasdefogu
Posada
Sadali
Sagama
San Teodoro
Sarule
Serri
Seui
Seulo
Silanus
Sindia
Siniscola
Sorgono
Suni
Talana
Tertenia
Teti
Tiana
Tinnura
Tonara
Torpè
Tortoì
Triei
Ulassai
Urzulei
Ussassai
Villagrande Strisaili
Villanova Tulo
Abbasanta
Aidomaggiore
Albagiara
Ales
Allai
Arborea
Ardauli
Assolo
Asuni
Baradili
Baratili San Pietro
Baressa
Bauladu
Bidonì
Bonarcado
Boroneddu
Busachi
Cabras
Cuglieri
Curcuris
Fordongianus
Ghilarza
Gonnoscodina
Gonnosnò
Gonnostramatza
Marrubiu
Masullas
Milis
Mogorella
Mogoro
Morgongiori
Narbolia
Neoneli
Norbello
Nughedu Santa Vittoria
Nurachi
Nureci
Ollastra
Oristano
Palmas Arborea
Pau
Paulilatino
Pompu
Riola Sardo
Ruinas
Samugheo
San Nicolò d'Arcidano
San Vero Milis
Santa Giusta
Santu Lussurgiu
Scano di Montiferro
Sedilo
Seneghe
Senis
Sennariolo
Siamaggiore
Siamanna
Siapiccia
Simala
Simaxis
Sini
Siris
Soddi
Solarussa
Sorradile
Tadasuni
Terralba
Tramatza
Tresnuraghes
Ulà Tirso
Uras
Usellus
Villa Sant'Antonio
Villa Verde
Villanova Truschedu
Villaurbana
Zeddiani
Zerfaliu
Aggius
Aglientu
Alà dei Sardi
Alghero
Anela
Ardara
Arzachena
Badesi
Banari
Benetutti
Berchidda
Bessude
Bono
Bonnanaro
Bonorva
Bortigiadas
Borutta
Bottidda
Buddusò
Bultei
Bulzi
Burgos  
Calangianus
Cargeghe
Castelsardo
Cheremule
Chiaramonti 
Codrongianos
Cossoine
Erula
Esporlatu
Florinas
Giave
Golfo Aranci
Illorai
Ittireddu
Ittiri
La Maddalena
Laerru
Loiri Porto San Paolo
Luogosanto
Luras
Mara
Martis
Monteleone Rocca Doria
Monti
Mores
Muros
Nughedu San Nicolò
Nule
Nulvi
Olbia
Olmedo
Oschiri
Osilo
Ossi
Ozieri
Padria
Padru
Palau
Pattada
Perfugas
Ploaghe
Porto Torres
Pozzomaggiore
Putifigari
Romana
Sant'Antonio di Gallura
Santa Maria Coghinas
Santa Teresa di Gallura
Sassari
Sedini
Semestene
Sennori
Siligo
Sorso
Stintino
Telti
Tempio Pausania
Tergu
Thiesi 
Tissi
Torralba
Trinità d'Agultu e Vignola
Tula
Uri
Usini
Valledoria
Viddalba
Villanova Monteleone

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